Arabidopsis CYCD3 D-type cyclins link cell proliferation and endocycles and are rate-limiting for cytokinin responses

Walter Dewitte, Simon Scofield, Annette A Alcasabas, Spencer C Maughan, Margit Menges, Nils Braun, Carl Collins, Jeroen Nieuwland, Els Prinsen, Venkatesan Sundaresan, James A H Murray

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Current understanding of the integration of cell division and expansion in the development of plant lateral organs such as leaves is limited. Cell number is established during a mitotic phase, and subsequent growth into a mature organ relies primarily on cell expansion accompanied by endocycles. Here we show that the three Arabidopsis cyclin D3 (CYCD3) genes are expressed in overlapping but distinct patterns in developing lateral organs and the shoot meristem. Triple loss-of-function mutants show that CYCD3 function is essential neither for the mitotic cell cycle nor for morphogenesis. Rather, analysis of mutant and reciprocal overexpression phenotypes shows that CYCD3 function contributes to the control of cell number in developing leaves by regulating the duration of the mitotic phase and timing of the transition to endocycles. Petals, which normally do not endoreduplicate, respond to loss of CYCD3 function with larger cells that initiate endocycles. The phytohormone cytokinin regulates cell division in the shoot meristem and developing leaves and induces CYCD3 expression. Loss of CYCD3 impairs shoot meristem function and leads to reduced cytokinin responses, including the inability to initiate shoots on callus, without affecting endogenous cytokinin levels. We conclude that CYCD3 activity is important for determining cell number in developing lateral organs and the relative contribution of the alternative processes of cell production and cell expansion to overall organ growth, as well as mediating cytokinin effects in apical growth and development.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)14537-42
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Issue number36
Publication statusPublished - 4 Sept 2007


  • Aging
  • Arabidopsis
  • Arabidopsis Proteins
  • Cell Cycle
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Cell Size
  • Cyclins
  • Cytokinins
  • Flowers
  • Gene Deletion
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
  • Mutation
  • Plant Leaves
  • Plant Shoots
  • Plants, Genetically Modified


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