Determination of areas for surface refractivity variation analysis over Quebec

Yamina Bettouche, Basile Agba, Ammar Kouki, Huthaifa Obeidat*, Haru Alhassan, Ali AlAbdullah, Jonathan Rodriguez, Raed Abd-Alhameed

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


For the aim of surface refractivity analysis, the overall territory of Quebec has been divided in a desired number of areas from North to South using clustering analysis. The meteorological data used in the analysis are collected from 50 stations located in various climatic regions over Quebec for the year 2013. It is found that the best input data for the identification of areas is the water vapour pressure. The results show that the surface refractivity increase from North to South and the maximum values for all areas are observed in July or in August. However, the variation of the surface refractivity remains in a relatively small interval in comparison to the variation observed in some tropical countries, particularly Nigeria.

Original languageEnglish
Article number105385
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics
Early online date18 Jul 2020
Publication statusPublished - 15 Oct 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • Clustering analysis
  • Gradient refractivity
  • Refractivity


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