Examining slit pore widths within plasma-exfoliated graphitic material utilising Barrett–Joyner–Halenda analysis

Rachel McLaren, Christian Laycock, Emmanuel Brousseau, Gareth Owen

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Plasma-exfoliated multilayer graphitic material (MLG) consists of orderly aligned stacks which contain many partially oxidised graphitic layers. Slit pores are present between successive stacks and their presence allows for improved friability, facile dispersion and accessibility for the intercalation of compounds. Whilst much research exists into the synthesis and application of MLG, there is a lack of quantitative data regarding their porous structures. This report outlines the structure of MLG as well as the application of Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) analysis to estimate the distance between adjacent stacks of orderly aligned graphitic layers within MLG. It was found that the distance between stacks can vary quite substantially between 2-131 nm within these plasma-derived materials, correlating with the width of meso- and macro-slit pores. Furthermore,t-plot data also suggests that micropores, likely to exist in the form of both slit pores and in-plane pores, are present within the material, hence stack separations may also exhibit distances of <2 nm. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) were used to assist in this interpretation and to correlate with the BJH analysis. MLG was further analysed using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) andt-plot analysis, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy to gain a comprehensive understanding of the material investigated. The above techniques provided results which were consistent with the BJH porosity analysis, thus establishing it as a straightforward and highly effective method for understanding materials with broad pore distributions such as MLGs.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberD1NJ01702K
Pages (from-to)12071-12080
Number of pages10
JournalNew Journal of Chemistry
Issue number27
Early online date21 Jun 2021
Publication statusPublished - 21 Jul 2021


  • Graphitic Material
  • porous materials
  • Graphene


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