Family presence during resuscitation: validation of the risk-benefit & self-confidence scales for student nurses

Isabelle Bray, Kenny Gerard, David Pontin, Rachel Williams, John Albarran

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Background. There is increasing debate about the advantages and disadvantages of family-witnessed resuscitation. Research about the views of healthcare providers depends upon reliable tools to measure their perceptions. Two tools have been developed for use with nurses (26-item cost-benefit tool, 17-item self-confidence tool). Objectives. Firstly, to validate these tools for use with student nurses in the UK. Secondly, to report on the perceived risks and benefits reported by student nurses, and their self-confidence in dealing with this situation.

Methods. A sample of 79 student nurses were invited to complete the tools. Item-total correlations and Cronbach’s α were used to determine internal consistency. Factor analysis was computed to assess construct validity. The correlation between the two scales was explored.

Results. 69 students completed a questionnaire. Very few had experience of family-witnessed resuscitation. Mean total scores were 3.16 (standard deviation 0.37; range 2.04–4.12) on the risk-benefit scale and 3.14 (standard deviation 0.66; range 1.94–4.82) on the self-confidence scale. Four of the original items were removed from the risk-benefit scale (Cronbach's α 0.86; 95% confidence interval ≥0.82). None were removed from the self-confidence scale (Cronbach's α 0.93; 95% confidence interval ≥0.91). There was a significant correlation between the two scales (r = 0.37, p = 0.002).

Conclusions. There is growing evidence that these tools are valid and reliable for measuring student nurses’ perceptions about family-witnessed resuscitation.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)306-322
Number of pages24
JournalJournal of Research in Nursing
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2016


  • Family-witnessed resuscitation
  • Student nurses attitudes
  • Instrument Validation
  • Risks and Benefit scale
  • Self-confidence scale


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