Haematuria: from identification to treatment

Kathryn King, Martin Steggall

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Haematuria has a prevalence of 0.1% to 2.6%. Potential diagnoses may include infection, kidney stones, trauma, exercise or spurious causes, such as foods, drugs or menstruation, and a tumour. Approximately 20% of patients with haematuria have a urological tumour, with a further 20% found to have a significant underlying pathology. Haematuria is subsequently known as the 'classic presentation' of bladder cancer with 70-80% of patients experiencing painless, gross (visible) haematuria. However, in all cases of visible haematuria, a tumour should be suspected until proven otherwise. A patient with visible haematuria requires urgent, stringent investigation, warranting specialist assessment and subsequent selective referral through a series of patient-centred investigations at a haematuria clinic. One-stop clinics have been shown to improve the patient experience in early diagnosis of potentially life-threatening conditions. Yet despite morbidity and mortality from bladder cancer increasing, the haematuria service has remained largely unchanged for several decades. This paper will discuss the tests and investigations that need to be undertaken in an individual with either visible or non-visible haematuria, and outline the care that is needed to support patients through the investigation process, with special focus on bladder tumour.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)S28-32
JournalBritish Journal of Nursing
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 14 May 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Female
  • Hematuria
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Morbidity
  • Nephrology Nursing
  • Patient-Centered Care
  • Prevalence
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms
  • Urinary Tract Infections
  • Journal Article


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