Load Frequency Control (LFC) Strategies in Renewable Energy‐Based Hybrid Power Systems: A Review

Muhammad Majid Gulzar, Muhammad Iqbal, Sulman Shahzad, Hafiz Abdul Muqeet, Muhammad Shahzad, Muhammad Majid Hussain*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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The hybrid power system is a combination of renewable energy power plants and conventional energy power plants. This integration causes power quality issues including poor settling times and higher transient contents. The main issue of such interconnection is the frequency variations caused in the hybrid power system. Load Frequency Controller (LFC) design ensures the reliable and efficient operation of the power system. The main function of LFC is to maintain the system frequency within safe limits, hence keeping power at a specific range. An LFC should be supported with modern and intelligent control structures for providing the adequate power to the system. This paper presents a comprehensive review of several LFC structures in a diverse configuration of a power system. First of all, an overview of a renewable energy‐based power system is provided with a need for the development of LFC. The basic operation was studied in single‐area, multi‐area and multi‐stage power system configurations. Types of controllers developed on different techniques studied with an overview of different control techniques were utilized. The comparative analysis of various controllers and strategies was performed graphically. The future scope of work provided lists the potential areas for conducting further research. Finally, the paper concludes by emphasizing the need for better LFC design in complex power system environments.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3488
Number of pages23
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 10 May 2022


  • artificial neural networks
  • load frequency control
  • multistage controllers
  • multi‐area power system
  • optimization algorithms
  • renewable energy systems
  • single‐area power system
  • sliding mode controller


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