Long-Term Evolution of The Surface Refractivity for Arctic Regions

Y. Bettouche, H. Obeidat*, B. Agba, A. Kouki, H. Alhassan, Jonathan Rodriguez, R. Abd-Alhameed, S. Jones

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


In this paper, local meteorological data for a period of 35 years (from 1979 to 2013) from Kuujuaq station have been used to calculate the surface refractivity, N (a link for the data is available in the acknowledgements), and to estimate the vertical refractivity gradient, dN1, in the lowest atmospheric layer above the ground. Monthly and yearly variations of the mean of N and dN1 are provided. The values obtained are compared with the corresponding values from the ITU maps. The long-term trend of the surface refractivity is also investigated. The data demonstrate that the indices N and dN1 are subject to an evolution that may have significance in the context of climate change. Monthly means of N show an increasing departure from ITU-R values since 1990. Yearly mean values of the dN1 show a progressive decrease over the period of study. Seasonal means of dN1 show a decrease over time, especially for summer. Such a trend may increase the occurrence of superrefraction. However, currently available ITU-R recommendations for microwave link design assume a stationary climate, so there is a need for a new modeling approach.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)602-611
Number of pages10
JournalRadio Science
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2 Jul 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • climate change
  • radiowave propagation
  • Refractivity
  • refractivity gradient


Dive into the research topics of 'Long-Term Evolution of The Surface Refractivity for Arctic Regions'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this