Recent Developments on the Transformation of CO2 Utilising Ligand Cooperation and Related Strategies

Ramaraj Ayyappan, Issam Abdalghani, Rosenildo Da Costa, Gareth Owen

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A portfolio of value-added chemicals, fuels and building block compounds can be envisioned from CO2 on an industrial scale. The high kinetic and thermodynamic stabilities of CO2, however, present a significant barrier to its utilisation as a C1 source. In this context, metal-ligand cooperation methodologies have emerged as one of the most dominant strategies for the transformation of the CO2 molecule over the last decade or so. This review focuses on the advancements in CO2 transformation using these cooperative methodologies. Different and well-studied ligand cooperation methodologies, such as dearomatisation-aromatisation type cooperation, bimetallic cooperation (M⸱⸱⸱⸱M’; M’ = main group or transition metal) and other related strategies will also be discussed. Furthermore, the cooperative bond activations are subdivided based on the number of atoms connecting the reactive centre in the ligand framework (spacer/linker length) and the transition metal. Several similarities across these seemingly distinct cooperative methodogies will be emphasised. Finally, this review brings out the challenges ahead in developing catalytic systems from these CO2 transformations.
Original languageEnglish
Article numberD2DT01609E
Pages (from-to)11582-11611
Number of pages30
JournalDalton Transactions
Issue number31
Early online date1 Jul 2022
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 1 Jul 2022


  • Carbon Dioxide
  • Homogeneous catalysis
  • sustainable chemistry
  • Ligand
  • CO2
  • Climate Change
  • Inorganic chemistry


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