Reproducibility of Thermal Images: Some Healthy Examples

Audrey Macdonald, Nina Petrova, Suhail Ainarkar, Peter Plassmann, Aaron Whittam, John Bevans, Francis Ring, Ben Kluwe, Rob Simpson, Leon Rogers, Graham Machin, Mike Edmonds, John Allen

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingOther chapter contributionpeer-review


Thirty participants with healthy feet were imaged in the same way on two separate occasions (an average of 4 weeks apart). Overall, feet were found to be thermally symmetric although absolute temperature could vary considerably between visits. Temperature differences at specific sites on the foot sometimes exceeded the threshold of 2.2 °C regarded as clinically significant when looking for evidence of inflammation prior to skin breakdown in diabetes. At least one site exceeded this threshold in nine (30%) participants (the same figure for both visits). However, when looking for significant thermal asymmetry it is important to rule out transient changes by repeated imaging and to refer to baseline images.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationApplication of Infrared to Biomedical Sciences
EditorsEddie YK Ng, Mahnaz EtehadTavakol
Place of PublicationSingapore
PublisherSpringer Nature
ISBN (Electronic)978-981-10-3147-2
ISBN (Print)978-981-10-3146-5
Publication statusPublished - 25 Mar 2017

Publication series

NameSeries in BioEngineering
ISSN (Print)2196-8861
ISSN (Electronic)2196-887X


  • Thermal imaging
  • Thermal symmetry
  • Diabetic foot ulcer


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