Sprinting Technique and Hamstring Strain Injuries: A Concept Mapping Study

Rudy Kalema, Steven Duhig, Morgan Williams, Alex Donaldson, Anthony J. Shield

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Objective: The aim of this study was to explore expert opinion to identify the components of sprinting technique they believed to be risk factors for hamstring strain injuries (HSI). Design: Mixed-method research design. Methods: The Concept Systems groupwisdom™ web platform was used to analyse and collect data. Participants brainstormed, sorted and rated the components of sprinting technique to consider in a HSI prevention strategy. Results: Twenty-three experts (academic/researcher, physiotherapist, strength and conditioning coaches and sprint coaches) brainstormed 66 statements that were synthesised and edited to 60 statements. Nineteen participants sorted the statements into clusters and rated them for relative importance and confidence they could be addressed in a hamstring injury prevention program. Multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis identified a 8-cluster solution modified to a 5-cluster solution by the research team: Training prescription (10 statements, mean importance: 3.79 out of 5 and mean confidence: 3.79); Neuromuscular and tendon properties (9, 3.09, 3.08); Kinematics parameters/Technical skills (27, 2.99, 2.98); Kinetics parameters (10, 2.85, 2.92); and Hip mechanics (4, 2.70, 2.63). The statement: “low exposure to maximal sprint running” located in the cluster “Training prescription” received the highest mean importance (4.55) and confidence ratings (4.42) of all statements. Conclusion: The five clusters of components of sprinting technique believed to be risk factors for HSIs in order of most to least important were: training prescription, neuromuscular and tendon properties, kinematics parameters/technical drills, kinetics parameters and hip mechanics.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Science and Medicine in Sports
Issue number00
Early online date22 Sept 2021
Publication statusPublished - 27 Oct 2021


  • hamstring strain injury
  • rehabilitation
  • injury prevention
  • sprint running
  • expert opinion


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