Urinary tract stones: causes, complications and treatment

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Stones or calculi in the urinary tract affect up to 12% of men and 5% of women by the age of 70 years, with more than a third of individuals having a strong family history (Unwin, 1996). Complications include obstruction in the urinary tract, pain, nausea, vomiting and sepsis. Common causes are: urine stasis, infection, presence of foreign bodies, dehydration, diet and periods of immobility. Encouraging initial diuresis could exacerbate rather than relieve symptoms. Discharge advice is a key feature of preventing recurrence once the predisposing factors have been identified. The relationship between patient and nurse is an invaluable and ideal opportunity for nurses to educate patients in appropriately changing dietary habit and in maintaining a urine output of greater than 2 litres per day.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1452-6
Number of pages5
JournalBritish Journal of Nursing
Issue number22
Publication statusPublished - 15 Feb 2002
Externally publishedYes


  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Nurse-Patient Relations
  • Patient Education as Topic
  • Recurrence
  • Risk Factors
  • Urinary Calculi


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