Wireless Electromagnetic Radiation Assessment Based on the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR): A Review Case Study

Mohamed Abdul-Al, Ahmed S.I. Amar, Issa Elfergani, Richard Littlehales, Naser Ojaroudi Parchin, Yasir Al-Yasir, Chan Hwang See*, Dawei Zhou, Zuhairiah Zainal Abidin, Mohammad Alibakhshikenari, Chemseddine Zebiri, Fauzi Elmegri, Musa Abusitta, Atta Ullah, Fathi M.A. Abdussalam, Jonathan Rodriguez, Neil J. McEwan, James M. Noras, Russell Hodgetts, Raed A. Abd-Alhameed

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

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Employing electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in new wireless communication and sensing technologies has substantially increased the level of human exposure to EMF waves. This paper presents a useful insight into the interaction of electromagnetic fields with biological media that is defined by the heat generation due to induced currents and dielectric loss. The specific absorption rate (SAR) defines the heating amount in a biological medium that is irradiated by an electromagnetic field value. The paper reviews the radio frequency hazards due to the SAR based on various safety standards and organisations, including a detailed investigation of previously published work in terms of modelling and measurements. It also summarises the most common techniques utilised between 1978 and 2021, in terms of the operational frequency spectrum, bandwidth, and SAR val-ues.

Original languageEnglish
Article number511
Number of pages31
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 9 Feb 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Electromagnetic fields
  • EMF
  • Radio frequency hazards
  • SAR


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